Advances in Integrative Cardiovascular Medicine

September 29- October 1,2017

Holiday Inn Downtown, Missoula, MT

Peter JH Jones, PhD, 

Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

 

 

Saturday, September 30 2:45 – 3:45 Monosaturated Fats:  Key to the Mediterranean Diet

 

Oleic acid, the main monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) abundant in the Mediterranean diet, is a fatty acid of interest in relation to both lipid lowering and body weight maintenance. It has been suggested that MUFA consumption leads to higher dietary induced thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation compared to saturated fatty acids (SFA), however, the relative effects of MUFA vs. polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are mixed. For instance, replacement of palmitic acid, a SFA, with oleic acid was associated with increased physical activity and REE in two separate participant cohorts. The high oleic acid diet was also linked to increased satiety.  Mechanisms underpinning these actions are now being elucidated. Oleic acid is the precursor for oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a fatty acid ethanolamine (FAE), which is an endogenous chemical signaling molecule related to food intake regulation and body composition.  A recent trial on hypercholesterolemic participants demonstrated that dietary oleic acid may modulate regional and total fat mass via OEA through lipid-signaling mechanisms.  The Canola Oil Multi-Centre Intervention Trial (COMIT) has provided further insight into the effect of dietary fatty acid quality on body composition.  A decrease in android obesity was shown primarily in high oleic canola oil feeding, with the extent of that decrease correlating with plasma levels of FAEs, particularly OEA, across individuals.  These recent results further suggest that oleic acid, as a key ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, may act as a key weight management ingredient possibly through a FAE mediated mechanism.

 

Learning objectives:

  1. Appreciate the differences in health benefits across various dietary fats and oils
  2. Develop an understanding of the impact of monounsaturated fats on lipid levels and their use in clinical practice
  3.  Gain an appreciation of newer research suggesting a role for monounsaturated fats in body weight control
  4. Understand mechanisms related to fatty acid regulatory molecules that associate with the beneficial action of monounsaturated fats linked to weight control 

 

 

Saturday, September 30 4:00 – 5:00 Nutrigenetics: What Does the Future Hold?

 

Substantial inter-individual heterogeneity exists in response of health-related biomarkers to dietary interventions. Increasingly, it has been demonstrated that a person’s genetic architecture contributes to this heterogeneity of response.  Indeed, development of predictive responsiveness tests for nutritional ingredients based on genotype has been proposed to reconcile this inter-individual variability, as seen through the launch of several commercial ventures in the nutrigenetics.  Epistatic interactions among single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms are known to control and predict certain phenotypes; consistent with this, various SNP combinations have been identified as associated with improved cholesterol responsiveness to intakes of plant sterols, and omega-3 fatty acids. However, gaps still exist as to fully controlled research that can systematically identify and validate gene-diet interactions to determine whether or not an individual will benefit from regular consumption of a given natural health product. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate the strength of evidence in support of a genetic basis explaining the heterogeneity in circulating biomarker responsiveness to increased consumption of plant sterols and omega-3 fats. It is anticipated that the existing research base will contribute to improved public health and lower healthcare expenses through advancement of personalized nutritional intervention strategies.

Learning objectives:

  1. Define nomenclature in the personalized nutrition arena terms such as including nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics
  2. Grasp the potential benefits of nutrigenetics in clinical practice
  3. Learn about the existing landscape in the global nutrigenetics area
  4. Understand how variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms can predict responsiveness of health biomarkers to dietary  ingredients
  5. Appreciate the future scope of and opportunities in the nutrigenetics field going forward